Does intellectual capital impact the financial performance of Indian public sector banks? An empirical analysis using GMM Humanities and Social Sciences Communications

Additionally, it identifies the potential impact of IC on the FP of banks following the merger decisions made by the Indian government. This research further enhances the existing body of research on the factors that influence the profitability of banks. It not only enhances the profitability of banks but also aids policymakers in achieving their financial stability objectives. To address potential issues of endogeneity and account for the volatile nature of banking revenues, we utilize the generalized method of moments (GMM) model. This approach, which has not been extensively employed in previous studies, ensures the reliability and robustness of our estimation results. The value of DFL is important to assess the valuation of financial leverage and determine how businesses can streamline processes to reduce monetary obligations.

  1. The company may also experience greater costs to borrow should it seek another loan again in the future.
  2. There are several different ratios that may be categorized as leverage ratios.
  3. As opposed to purely equity-financed companies, firms that use debt in their capital structure take on more business risk.
  4. The different elements of IC have also been used to examine the combined effect of IC (measured through MVAIC) on the FP of IPSBs.
  5. To address these limitations, the researchers devised the MVAIC framework, which incorporates a supplementary component of IC, referred to as Relational Capital (RC).

This shadow banking system now accounts for about 50 per cent of global financial services assets. The previous year’s earning per share (EPS) was $3.5, and in the current financial year, the EPS is $4.8, if the last year’s EBIT is $8000. If a company’s FLE is 1.5, an increase in operating income of 10% will increase its net income by 15%. A higher degree of financial leverage means that earnings will be more volatile. Company X was formed with a $10 million investment from investors, where the equity in the company is $10 million.

Everything You Need To Master Valuation Modeling

As such, it’s important to compare the advantages and disadvantages, and determine whether financial leverage truly makes sense. A company was formed with a $5 million investment from investors, where the equity in the company is $5 million, which is the money the company can use to operate. If the company uses debt financing by borrowing $20 million, it now has $25 million to invest in business operations and more opportunities to increase value for shareholders. For example, if a public company has total assets valued at $500 million and shareholder equity valued at $250 million, then the equity multiplier is 2.0 ($500 million ÷ $250 million).

The Debt-to-Equity (D/E) Ratio

When one refers to a company, property, or investment as «highly leveraged,» it means that the item has more debt than equity. Although financial leverage may result in enhanced earnings for a company, it may also result in disproportionate losses. Losses may occur when the interest expense payments for the asset overwhelm the borrower because the returns from the asset are not sufficient.

Other Resources

Financial leverage helps you to continue with your investments even if the business does not have enough cash. Equity financing is the most preferred option in this case, as it allows you to raise money without liquidating your ownership. For example, investors make investments in things that are often themselves leveraged. In private equity net asset value loans, funds borrow against the value of their shares in businesses that have significant borrowings. This means that the underlying source of cash flow or returns must be sufficient to meet multiple claims, reducing the margin of safety. Return on assets is a financial ratio that measures a company’s profitability in relation to its total assets.

GMM estimation is preferred over linear panel least square (Anifowose et al. 2018; Farooque et al. 2023; Tiwari and Vidyarthi 2018; Zheng et al. 2022). In the GMM technique lag of the dependent variable is used as an independent variable along with other independent variables. According to the GMM technique, there is a need to fulfill certain assumptions.

Using borrowed funds, instead of equity funds, can really improve the company’s return on equity and earnings per share, provided that the increase in earnings is greater than the interest paid on the loans. There is a suite of financial ratios referred to as leverage ratios that analyze the level of indebtedness a company experiences against various assets. The two most common financial leverage ratios are debt-to-equity (total debt/total equity) and debt-to-assets (total debt/total assets). In other words, the financial leverage ratios measure the overall debt load of a company and compare it with the assets or equity. This shows how much of the company assets belong to the shareholders rather than creditors.

Total debt, in this case, refers to the company’s current liabilities (debts that the company intends to pay within one year or less) and long-term liabilities (debts with a maturity of more than one year). That means that if its operating income increased by 10%, then its net income would increase by 15%. You find the effect on net income by multiplying the change in operating income by the FLE number. If the OLE is equal to 1, then all costs incurred by the company are variable. Thus, an increase or decrease in sales would lead to a proportional increase or decrease in ROA.

Banks should also monitor their strategies, operations, procedures, and organizational efficiency to improve the bank’s profitability. In contrast, RCE shows a negative and strong correlation with EPS and a negligible relationship with all other financial performance metrics, except for ROCE. Lastly, we examined the impact of the control variables on financial performance and discovered that financial measures of financial leverage leverage has a considerable negative impact while size has a positive impact. As leverage or debt capital is increased it leads to a decline in the profitability of the public sector banks. The degree of financial leverage or DFL is a financial leverage ratio that measures earnings per share or EPS of a business with fluctuation in operating income due to the change in capital structure.

Operating Leverage Formula

A company can also compare its debt to how much income it makes in a given period. The company will want to know that debt in relation to operating income is controllable. For example, start-up technology companies may struggle to secure financing and must often turn to private investors. Therefore, a debt-to-equity ratio of .5 may still be considered high for this industry compared. Investors who are not comfortable using leverage directly have a variety of ways to access leverage indirectly. They can invest in companies that use leverage in the normal course of their business to finance or expand operations—without increasing their outlay.

Financial Leverage Ratio Formula

One problem with only reviewing the total debt liabilities for a company is they do not tell you anything about the company’s ability to service the debt. If the company opts for the first option, it will own 100% of the asset, and there will be no interest payments. If the asset appreciates in value by 30%, the asset’s value will increase to $130,000 and the company will earn a profit of $30,000. Similarly, if the asset depreciates by 30%, the asset will be valued at $70,000 and the company will incur a loss of $30,000.

The aspect of financial leverage is significant since it empowers both individual investors and organisations to tap into investment opportunities that may surpass their existing cash reserves. Although this strategy entails a level of risk, it has the potential to foster business expansion, thereby generating additional employment opportunities and stimulating economic activity. These assets are inherently more difficult to assess, making loan-to-value determinations challenging. Third, with cash flow often inadequate to service debt, borrowings are increasingly reliant on the value of assets over which they are secured.

While you may not have a background in finance, a basic understanding of the key concepts of financial accounting can help you improve your decision-making process, as well as your chances for career success. With a better understanding of how your organization measures financial performance, you can take steps to provide additional value in your daily activities. From that point onward, we’ll calculate three distinct credit ratios — the leverage ratio, interest coverage ratio, and debt to equity (D/E) ratio – to better grasp the financial health of our company.

What is considered a high leverage ratio will depend on what ratio you are measuring. For example, a total debt-to-assets ratio greater than 1 would be considered high – meaning a company has more liabilities than assets. This ratio is used to evaluate a firm’s financial structure and how it is financing operations. Generally, the higher the debt-to-capital ratio is, the higher the risk of default. If the ratio is very high, earnings may not be enough to cover the cost of debts and liabilities. There are several different ratios that may be categorized as leverage ratios.